Рассмотрены и охарактеризованы наиболее информативные методы и показатели оценки функционального состояния спортсменов высокой квалификации, которые применяют в Болгарии в лабораторных условиях и в условиях реальных тренироочных занятий.
Objective. To study the current state and issues of testing highly skilled athletes in Bulgaria.
Methods. Analysis and synthesis of scientific and empirical data.
Results. Control in the system of elite sport in Bulgaria includes assessment of general health and identification of health problems (health indices, electrocardiography at rest, measurement of general hematological parameters); analysis and evaluation of functional capacities (anthropometry, testing exercises performed in laboratory conditions (including measurement of gas exchange; registration of electrocardiogram during testing loads and recovery period; analysis of blood lactate concentration during testing loads and recovery period) and field (under conditions of training process) testing loads; training process control and planning (assessment of anaerobic threshold and determination of training zones according to heart rate).
Conclusions. During testing, Bulgarian specialists tend to use informative methods and indices for assessing the functional status of athletes both in the laboratory conditions and those of actual training activity. One of the main problems of scientific and medical support of Bulgarian elite sport is the lack of effective dialogue between scientists and coaches. The small amount of information about the daily regime of the athletes' training process, the goals and nature of the training loads impedes the objective analysis of the functional status of the examined athletes and the planning of their future training process. Due to financial and organizational reasons, scientists are rarely directly involved in training camps and studies in field settings. This does not provide objective practical observation of the immediate organization and implementation of the training program. There is no effective coordination between health professionals and coaches in the medical support of elite sport.