The article covers in depth the system of knowledge in the field of periodization of annual preparation of skilled athletes. The regularities that underlie the annual preparation periodization, peculiarities of their use in the training of individual athletes and teams are analyzed. It is shown that the concept of periodization of the annual preparation of highly skilled athletes, stated by L. P. Matveyev in the 1960s - 1970s, is based on objective scientific knowledge, repeatedly confirmed by practice and developed in the following years by prominent specialists of different countries. Attempts of some experts to present this concept as archaic, which does not meet the requirements of modern sport with its extremely intensive competitive activity, are destructive, seriously disorienting coaches and athletes who conduct a systematic preparation of athletes for the major competitions of the year - the Olympic Games. Different approaches to the annual preparation periodization as well as the basic differences between the annual preparation schemes, focused on intensive competitive practice for most of the year or planned preparation for the major competitions, and its subordination to other competitive practices, have been demonstrated.