Представлен анализ специальной литературы и результаты собственных исследований по обоснованию использования гипоксической тренировки для повышения общей и специальной работоспособности спорстменов.
Objective. To substantiate the effectiveness of the use of traditional and non-traditional means for improving the aerobic performance of the athlete’s body in the practice of his preparation.
Methods. The analysis of special scientific literature and the results of own research on substantiation of the use of hypoxic training to improve general and special work capacity of athletes are presented.
Results. Hypoxic training in altitude conditions became necessary in preparation for the Games of the XIX Olympics in Mexico City and subsequently became widespread in the practice of elite sport. Body adaptation to the lack of oxygen is used to improve general and special work capacity of the athlete and in artificially created conditions: in bar complexes or during the periodic inhalation of gas mixtures with decreased oxygen content. Any physical load is accompanied by a load hypoxia (hypermetabolichypoxia) of varying degrees; therefore during sports training there is an adaptation to load hypoxia. When the athlete inhales the air with reduced partial pressure of oxygen, the body is affected by hypoxic hypoxia. The method of interval physical training in sport became the basis for the creation of the method of normobaric interval hypoxic training (IGT), and then an unconventional combined means for improving the efficiency of the training process in sport, which includes the conduct of IGT in the face of the planned training process of the athlete. The use of combined method of training (A. Kolchinskaya, 1991) complements traditional sports training without disrupting its process.
Conclusion. The method of IGT as non-traditional combined means for improving the efficiency of the training process in sports is based on adaptation to hypoxic hypoxia and load hypoxia, has greater efficiency than their individual use, while providing a training effect on the compensatory mechanisms that will promote the development of functional respiratory system, increase of aerobic and anaerobic performance, and in combination with traditional sports training enhances general and special work capacity, contributes to the improvement of sports results.